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The massive sedimentation and sediment reworking in the inner and mid shelves have been comprehensively surveyed in the last decades, including the core river-ocean biogeochemical processes () have received much less attention.For instance, it is unknown whether this surficial carbonate layer comprises living biomineralizers and other reef-associated organisms and how this benthic system may be coupled to the pelagic compartments.The ubiquity of large sponges and other filter feeders, as well as the increase of chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms recorded in the subplume, provides insights about ecosystem-level responses to the globally accelerating conditions that select against photosymbiotic biocalcifiers (for example, scleractinian corals)., spanning from 5°N to 1°S and 44° to 51°W, was recorded between the Brazil–French Guiana border and Maranhão State, Brazil (Fig. Rhodolith beds and higher-relief structures were recorded across a relatively long (~1000 km) and narrow (~50 km) stretch in the outer shelf and upper slope, in depths ranging from 30 m to the shelf break at 90 to 120 m.This extensive submerged carbonate system extends from French Guiana southward to the Manuel Luis reef, the northernmost emerging reef within the Brazilian Biogeographic Province.(A) Distribution of reef fisheries and oceanographic stations.However, biogenic reefs develop under a much wider array of conditions that constrain mineralization and other core ecosystem processes typical of tropical coral reefs (for example, grazing by metazoans) ().The main controls over reef ecosystems interact and vary in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms.

The novel system presented here adds to the repertoire of “marginal” reef types shaped by conditions deviating from those of the archetypal tropical coral reefs.

plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America.

As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, p H, light penetration, and sedimentation.

On the other hand, many reef-associated species occur at both sides of the river mouth, with possible connectivity mechanisms related to long-range larval dispersal, rafting, or demersal migration through stepping stones (, between the French Guiana–Brazil border and the Maranhão State in Brazil (~1000 km).

Our survey was carried out near the shelf edge and in the upper slope (25 to 120 m), and included geophysical and physical-chemical surveys, radiocarbon dating and petrographic characterization of reef samples, biogeochemical tracers, and microbial metagenomics.

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